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Key terms and Spelling List - Year 7 Science
  • Organisms
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    CellThe unit of a living organism, contains parts to carry out life processes. 
    Uni-cellularLiving things made up of one cell. 
    Multi-cellularLiving things made up of many types of cell. 
    TissueGroup of cells of one type. 
    OrganGroup of different tissues working together to carry out a job. 
    DiffusionOne way for substances to move into and out of cells. 
    Structural adaptationsSpecial features to help a cell carry out its functions. 
    Cell membraneSurrounds the cell and controls movement of substances in and out. 
    NucleusContains genetic material (DNA) which controls the cell's activities. 
    VacuoleArea in a cell that contains liquid, and can be used by plants to keep the cell rigid and store substances. 
    MitochondriaPart of the cell where energy is released from food molecules. 
    Cell wallStrengthens the cell. In plant cells it is made of cellulose. 
    ChloroplastAbsorbs light energy so the plant can make food. 
    CytoplasmJelly-like substance where most chemical processes happen. 
    Immune systemProtects the body against infections. 
    Reproductive systemProduces sperm and eggs, and is where the foetus develops. 
    Digestive systemBreaks down and then absorbs food molecules. 
    Circulatory systemTransports substances around the body. 
    Respiratory systemReplaces oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from blood. 
    Muscular skeletal systemMuscles and bones working together to cause movement and support the body. 
    JointsPlaces where bones meet. 
    Bone marrowTissue found inside some bones where new blood cells are made. 
    LigamentsConnect bones in joints. 
    TendonsConnect muscles to bones. 
    CartilageSmooth tissue found at the end of bones, which reduces friction between them. 
    Antagonistic muscle pairMuscles working in unison to create movement. 
  • Matter
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    ParticleA very tiny object such as an atom or molecule, too small to be seen with a microscope. 
    Particle ModelA way to think about how substances behave in terms of small, moving particles. 
    DiffusionThe process by which particles in liquids or gases spread out through random movement from a region where there are many particles to one where there are fewer. 
    Gas pressureCaused by collisions of particles with the walls of a container. 
    DensityHow much matter there is in a particular volume, or how close the particles are. 
    EvaporateChange from liquid to gas at the surface of a liquid, at any temperature. 
    BoilChange from liquid to a gas of all the liquid when the temperature reaches boiling point. 
    CondenseChange of state from gas to liquid when the temperature drops to the boiling point. 
    MeltChange from solid to liquid when the temperature rises to the melting point. 
    FreezeChange from liquid to a solid when the temperature drops to the melting point. 
    SublimeChange from a solid directly into a gas. 
    SolventA substance, normally a liquid, that dissolves another substance. 
    SoluteA substance that can dissolve in a liquid. 
    DissolveWhen a solute mixes completely with a solvent. 
    SolutionMixture formed when a solvent dissolves a solute. 
    Soluble(insoluble) Property of a substance that will (will not) dissolve in a liquid. 
    SolubilityMaximum mass of solute that dissolves in a certain volume of solvent. 
    Pure substanceSingle type of material with nothing mixed in. 
    MixtureTwo or more pure substances mixed together, whose properties are different to the individual substances. 
    FiltrationSeparating substances using a filter to produce a filtrate (solution) and residue. 
    DistillationSeparating substances by boiling and condensing liquids. 
    EvaporationA way to separate a solid dissolved in a liquid by the liquid turning into a gas. 
    ChromatographyUsed to separate different coloured substances. 
  • Reactions
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    pHScale of acidity and alkalinity from 0 to 14. 
    IndicatorsSubstances used to identify whether unknown solutions are acidic or alkaline. 
    BaseA substance that neutralises an acid - those that dissolve in water are called alkalis. 
    ConcentrationA measure of the number of particles in a given volume 
    MetalsShiny, good conductors of electricity and heat, malleable and ductile, and usually solid at room temperature. 
    Non-metalsDull, poor conductors of electricity and heat, brittle and usually solid or gaseous at room temperature. 
    DisplacementReaction where a more reactive metal takes the place of a less reactive metal in a compound. 
    OxidationReaction in which a substance combines with oxygen. 
    ReactivityThe tendency of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction. 
  • Forces
  • Genes
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    SpeciesA group of living things that have more in common with each other than with other groups. 
    VariationThe differences within and between species. 
    Continuous variationWhere differences between living things can have any numerical value. 
    Discontinuous variationWhere differences between living things can only be grouped into categories. 
    GameteThe male gamete (sex cell) in animals is a sperm, the female an egg. 
    FertilisationJoining of a nucleus from a male and female sex cell. 
    OvaryOrgan which contains eggs. 
    TesticleOrgan where sperm are produced. 
    Oviduct, or fallopian tubeCarries an egg from the ovary to the uterus and is where fertilisation occurs. 
    Uterus, or wombWhere a baby develops in a pregnant woman. 
    OvulationRelease of an egg cell during the menstrual cycle, which may be met by a sperm. 
    MenstruationLoss of the lining of the uterus during the menstrual cycle 
    Reproductive systemAll the male and female organs involved in reproduction. 
    PenisOrgan which carries sperm out of the male's body. 
    VaginaWhere the penis enters the female's body and sperm is received. 
    FoetusThe developing baby during pregnancy. 
    GestationProcess where the baby develops during pregnancy. 
    PlacentaOrgan that provides the foetus with oxygen and nutrients and removes waste substances. 
    Amniotic fluidLiquid that surrounds and protects the foetus. 
    Umbilical cordConnects the foetus to the placenta. 
  • Energy
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    Thermal energy storeFilled when an object is warmed up. 
    Chemical energy storeEmptied during chemical reactions when energy is transferred to surroundings. 
    Kinetic energy storeFilled when an object speeds up. 
    Gravitational potential energy Filled when an object is raised. 
    Elastic energy storeFilled when a material is stretched or compressed. 
    DissipatedBecome spread out wastefully. 
    PowerHow quickly energy is transferred by a device (watts). 
    Energy resourceSomething with stored energy that can be released in a useful way. 
    Non-renewableAn energy resource that cannot be replaced and will be used up. 
    RenewableAn energy resource that can be replaced and will not run out. Examples are solar, wind, waves, geothermal and biomass. 
    Fossil fuelsNon-renewable energy resources formed from the remains of ancient plants or animals. Examples are coal, crude oil and natural gas. 
  • Earth
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    GalaxyCollection of stars held together by gravity. Our galaxy is called the Milky Way. 
    Light yearDistance light travels in a year (over 9 million, million kilometres). 
    StarsBodies which give out light, and which may have a solar system of planets. 
    OrbitPath taken by a satellite, planet or star moving around a larger body. Earth completes one orbit of the Sun every year. 
    ExoplanetPlanet that orbits a star outside our solar system. 
    Rock cycleSequence of processes where rocks change from one type to another. 
    WeatheringThe wearing down of rock by physical, chemical or biological processes. 
    ErosionWeathering of rock and its movement by water, ice or wind (transportation). 
    MineralsChemicals that rocks are made from. 
    Sedimentary rocksFormed from layers of sediment, and which can contain fossils. Examples are limestone, chalk and sandstone. 
    Igneous rocksFormed from cooled magma, with minerals arranged in crystals. Examples are granite, basalt and obsidian. 
    Metamorphic rocksFormed from existing rocks exposed to heat and pressure over a long time. Examples are marble, slate and schist. 
    StrataLayers of sedimentary rock. 
  • Electromagnets
  • Waves
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    Incident rayThe incoming ray. 
    Reflected rayThe outgoing ray. 
    Normal lineFrom which angles are measured, at right angles to the surface. 
    Angle of reflectionBetween the normal and reflected ray. 
    Angle of incidenceBetween the normal and incident ray. 
    RefractionChange in the direction of light going from one material into another. 
    AbsorptionWhen energy is transferred from light to a material 
    ScatteringWhen light bounces off an object in all directions. 
    TransparentA material that allows all light to pass through it. 
    TranslucentA material that allows some light to pass through it. 
    OpaqueA material that allows no light to pass through it. 
    Convex lensA lens that is thicker in the middle which bends light rays towards each other. 
    Concave lensA lens that is thinner in the middle which spreads out light rays. 
    RetinaLayer at the back of the eye with light detecting cells and where image is formed. 
    VibrationA back and forth motion that repeats. 
    Longitudinal waveWhere the direction of vibration is the same as that of the wave. 
  • Ecosystem
  • Working Scientifically