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Key terms and Spelling List - Year 10 Physical Education
  • Applied anatomy and physiology & Training
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    Aerobic exerciseworking at a low to moderate intensity so that the body has time to use oxygen for energy production and can work for a long period of time.  
    Anaerobic exerciseworking for short periods of time at a high intensity without oxygen for energy production.  
    Antagonistthe muscle or group of muscles that relax to allow a movement to take place (paired with an agonist). 
    Agonistthe muscle or group of muscles that contract to allow a movement to take place (paired with an antagonist). 
    Articulating bonesbones that meet at a joint to enable movement. 
    DOMSDelayed Onset of Muscle Soreness. Pain felt in muscles the day after exercise.  
    EPOCExcess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption. Amount of oxygen needed to recover after exercise. Characterised by increased breathing rate post exercise.  
    Fatiguefeeling of extreme or severe tiredness due to a build up of lactic acid in the muscles. 
    Fitnessthe ability to meet, or cope with, the demands of the environment.  
    FITT principleused to increase the amount of work the body does in order to achieve overload (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type). 
    Healtha state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.  
    Hypertrophythe enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the size of its cells. When a muscle is trained, small tears are created. As they heal, they become thicker and increase in size.  
    Isometric contractiona muscle contraction where the length of the muscle does not change when it contracts. No limb movement.  
    Isotonic contractiona muscle contraction where the length of the muscle changes length when it contracts, resulting in limb movement. Concentric (muscle contracts and shortens). Eccentric (muscle contracts and lengthens). 
    Lactic acida mild poison and waste product of anaerobic respiration. 
    Musculoskeletal systemthe muscular system and the skeletal system working together. 
    Principles of Trainingguidelines that, if applied, ensure that training is effective and results in positive adaptations. SPORT - Specificity, Progressive Overload, Reversibility and Tedium.  
    Repetitions (reps)the number of times an individual activity is performed.  
    Sedentary lifestylea lifestyle with irregular or no physical activity. 
    Setsa group of repetitions. 
    Synovial jointan area of the body where two or more articulating bones meet. 
    Tendonconnective tissue connecting muscle to bone. 
    Ligamentconnective tissue connecting bone to bone.  
  • Training, movement analysis and data.
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    Agilitythe ability to move and change direction quickly, at speed, while maintaining control.  
    Balancemaintaining the centre of mass over the base of support. Balances can be dynamic or static.  
    Coordinationthe ability to use two or more different parts of the body together, smoothly and efficiently.  
    Effortthe force required to move the load. It can also be referred to as 'force'. 
    Effort armthe distance from the effort to the fulcrum. 
    Flexibilitythe range of movement possible at a joint.  
    Fulcrumthe fixed point at which a lever turns or is supported. It can also be referred to as the 'axis'.  
    Levera rigid bar that turns about an axis to create movement. All levers contain a fulcrum, load and effort.  
    Loadthe weight or 'resistance' that the lever must move. 
    Load armthe distance from the load to the fulcrum.  
    Mechanical advantagemeasures the efficiency of a lever. It is calculated as follows: mechanical advantage = effort arm/load (resistance) arm.  
    Muscular endurancethe ability of a muscle or muscle group to undergo repeated contractions, avoiding fatigue.  
    Powerthe product of strength and speed. Power = strength x speed.  
    Qualitative datadata that focuses on understanding things: involves descriptions about people's opinions, the way they feel/think/behave. Analysing qualitative data gives you a subjective answer to your question.  
    Quantitative datadata that focuses on measuring things and involves numbers. Quantitative data involves facts: it gives you an objective answer to your question.  
    Reaction timethe time taken to initiate a response to a stimulus.  
    Speedthe maximum rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time. Speed = distance/time.  
    Strengththe ability to overcome resistance. There are four types of strength: maximal, explosive, dynamic and static.  
  • Health, anatomy and physiology, and movement analysis.
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    Abductionmovement of a bone or limb away from the midline of the body. 
    Adductionmovement of a bone or limb towards the midline of the body.  
    Alveolismall air sacs in the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place.  
    Axisan imaginary straight line through the body around which it rotates.  
    Balanced dieta diet that contains the right quantity of food so that you consume only as many calories as you expend each day. Right mix of different food types so that the body receives all the nutrients, vitamins and minerals it needs.  
    Caloriea unit of measurement for heat or energy production in the body, normally expressed as kcal.  
    Dehydrationexcessive loss of water from the body, interrupting the normal functioning of the body.  
    Diffusion pathwaythe distance travelled during diffusion. The diffusion pathway is short in gaseous exchange.  
    Ectomorpha somatotype characterised by being tall and thin, with narrow shoulders and narrow hips.  
    Endomorpha somatotype characterised by a pear-shaped body. Endomorphs have wide hips, narrow shoulders and higher levels of body fat.  
    Exhalation/Expirationbreathing out. 
    Expiratory reserve volumethe amount of air that can be forced out after tidal volume (normal expiration). This decreases during exercise.  
    Dorsiflexionmovement at ankle joint - decreases angle at ankle joint. 
    Extensionincrease angle of bones at a joint.  
    Flexiondecrease in the angle of bones at a joint. 
    Frontal planeruns left to right and divides the body into front and back.  
    Gaseous exchangeprocess where oxygen from the air in the alveoli moves into the blood in the capillaries, while carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli.  
    Inhalation/Inspirationthe process of breathing in.  
    Inspiratory reserve volumethe amount of air that can be forced in after tidal volume (after normal breathing). This decreases during exercise.  
    Longitudinal axisruns vertically through the body, from head to toe.  
    Mesomorpha somatotype characterised by a muscular appearance, wide shoulders and narrow hips.  
    Nutritionthe intake of food, considered in relation to the body's dietary needs.  
    Planean imaginary line that splits the body in two and depicts the direction of movement.  
    Plantar flexionmovement at the ankle joint - increases the angle at the ankle joint.  
    Residual Volumeamount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration. No change during exercise.  
    Rotationcircular movement around a joint or, in other words, a movement around an axis.  
    Sagittal axisruns horizontally through the body from front to back, through the belly button.  
    Sagittal planeruns forward and backwards and divides the body into right and left halves.  
    Somatotype a method of classifying body types. 
    Tidal volumethe normal amount of air inhaled or exhaled per breath. Increases with exercise.  
    Transverse axisruns horizontally through the body from left to right at the hips.  
    Transverse planedivides the body in half horizontally. 
    Vital capacitythe largest volume of air that can be forcibly expired after the deepest possible inspiration.  
  • Applied anatomy and physiology and Sports Psychology.
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    Abilityan inherited, stable trait that determines an individual's potential to learn or acquire a skill.  
    Aerobic training zonetraining in the aerobic training zone allows the performer to develop their ability to work aerobically. It is 60-80% of your maximum heart rate (MHR). 
    Anaerobic training zonetraining in the anaerobic training zone allows the performer to develop their ability to work anaerobically. It is 80-90% of your MHR. 
    Backflowthe flowing backwards of blood. Valves in the veins prevent backflow.  
    Basic skilla simple skill that does not require much concentration. 
    Blood pressurethe pressure that blood is under. The systolic reading measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart contracts. The diastolic reading measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart relaxes.  
    Capillariesa network of microscopic blood vessels. They are only one cell thick.  
    Cardiac cycleone cycle of diastole and systole is called the cardiac cycle. 
    Cardiac output (Q)the volume of blood ejected from the heart in one minute. Cardiac output (Q) = stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR). 
    Cardio-respiratory systemthe name used to describe the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system working together. 
    Closed skilla skill that is not affected by the environment or performers within it. The skill tends to be done the same way each time. 
    Complex skilla skill that requires a great deal of concentration and coordination to perform.  
    Deoxygenated bloodblood containing a low concentration of oxygen. 
    Diastolethe phase of the heartbeat when the chambers of the heart relax and fill with blood.  
    Externally paced skilla skill that is started because of an external factor. The speed, rate or pace of the skill is controlled by external factors, such as an opponent or the environment. 
    Feedbackthe information a performer receives about their performance. Feedback can be given during and/or after a performance.  
    Fine movement skilla skill involving small, precise movements, showing high levels of accuracy and coordination. It involves the use of a small group of muscles.  
    Gross movement skilla skill that uses large muscle groups to perform big, strong, powerful movements.  
    Haemoglobinthe protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen (as oxyhaemoglobin) and carbon dioxide around the body.  
    Information processingthe name given to the process that a performer goes through when they make and act on decisions. There are four steps: input, decision making, output, feedback.  
    Kinaesthetic feedbackreceived by receptors in the muscles. Physical sensations generated by movements are felt by the performer and provide a form of intrinsic feedback.  
    Open skilla skill that is performed in a certain way to deal with a changing or unstable environment. 
    Outcome goalgoals that focus on the end result, on winning. 
    Oxygenated bloodblood containing a high concentration of oxygen.  
    Oxyhaemoglobina chemical formed when haemoglobin bonds to oxygen. 
    Performance goalspersonal standards to be achieved. Performers compare themselves against what they have already done or suggest what they are going to do. There is no comparison with other performers.  
    Self paced skilla skill is started when the performer decides to start it. The speed, rate or pace of the skill is controlled by the performer.  
    Skilla learned action of behaviour, with the intention of bringing about pre-determined results, with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of time and energy. 
    SMART targeta goal setting technique that can be used to increase motivation and reduce anxiety. Specific, Measurable, Accepted, Realistic and Time-bound.  
    Stroke volume (SV)the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction.  
    Systolethe phase of the heartbeat when the chambers of the heart contract and empty of blood. When blood is ejected from the heart.  
    Training thresholdsthe upper and lower boundaries of the aerobic training zone and the anaerobic training zone. 
    Vasoconstrictionthe narrowing of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to decrease blood flow. The arteries constrict during exercise so that less blood is delivered to inactive areas.  
    Vasodilationthe widening of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to increase blood flow. The arteries dilate during exercise so that more blood is delivered to the active areas, increasing their oxygen supply.  
  • Sports Psychology
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    Aggressioncan be physical or mental. Two types; direct aggression and indirect aggression.  
    Arousala physical and mental (physiological and psychological) state of alertness/readiness, varying from deep sleep to intense excitement or alertness.  
    Deep breathingtaking slow, deep breaths whilst relaxed.  
    Direct aggressionan aggressive act that involves physical contact with others.  
    Extrinsic feedbackinformation a performer receives about their performance from outside themselves, such as from a coach.  
    Extrinsic motivationthe drive to perform well or to win in order to gain external rewards.  
    Guidancea method of conveying information to a performer. Guidance can be visual, verbal, manual or mechanical.  
    Indirect aggressionan aggressive act that does not involve direct physical contact. It is taken out on an object in order to gain an advantage. 
    Intrinsic feedbackinformation a performer receives from within.  
    Intrinsic motivationthe drive to succeed that comes from within.  
    Motivationthe drive to succeed or desire to achieve or be inspired to do something. Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic.  
    Positive self-talka cognitive relaxation technique involving developing positive thoughts about your performance.  
    Introverta quiet, shy, passive and reserved personality type, usually associated with individual sports performance.  
    Extroverta sociable, active, talkative and outgoing personality type, usually associated with team sports.  
    Traitdistinguishing qualities or characteristics belonging to a person.  
  • Socio-cultural influences
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    Commercialisationthe management or exploitation of a person, organisation or activity in a way designed to make a profit.  
    Mediaa diverse range of technologies that act as a means of mass communication. Four types: print, broadcast, internet and social media, and outdoor.  
    Role modela person looked up to by others as an example to be imitated.  
    Sponsoran individual or group, usually a company, that provides financial support to an event, activity, person or organisation.  
    Sponsorshipthe provision of funds or other forms of support to an event, activity, person or organisation in return for some kind of commercial return.  

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