an inherited, stable trait that determines an individual's potential to learn or acquire a skill.
training in the aerobic training zone allows the performer to develop their ability to work aerobically. It is 60-80% of your maximum heart rate (MHR).
training in the anaerobic training zone allows the performer to develop their ability to work anaerobically. It is 80-90% of your MHR.
the flowing backwards of blood. Valves in the veins prevent backflow.
a simple skill that does not require much concentration.
the pressure that blood is under. The systolic reading measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart contracts. The diastolic reading measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart relaxes.
a network of microscopic blood vessels. They are only one cell thick.
one cycle of diastole and systole is called the cardiac cycle.
the volume of blood ejected from the heart in one minute. Cardiac output (Q) = stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR).
the name used to describe the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system working together.
a skill that is not affected by the environment or performers within it. The skill tends to be done the same way each time.
a skill that requires a great deal of concentration and coordination to perform.
blood containing a low concentration of oxygen.
the phase of the heartbeat when the chambers of the heart relax and fill with blood.
a skill that is started because of an external factor. The speed, rate or pace of the skill is controlled by external factors, such as an opponent or the environment.
the information a performer receives about their performance. Feedback can be given during and/or after a performance.
a skill involving small, precise movements, showing high levels of accuracy and coordination. It involves the use of a small group of muscles.
a skill that uses large muscle groups to perform big, strong, powerful movements.
the protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen (as oxyhaemoglobin) and carbon dioxide around the body.
the name given to the process that a performer goes through when they make and act on decisions. There are four steps: input, decision making, output, feedback.
received by receptors in the muscles. Physical sensations generated by movements are felt by the performer and provide a form of intrinsic feedback.
a skill that is performed in a certain way to deal with a changing or unstable environment.
goals that focus on the end result, on winning.
blood containing a high concentration of oxygen.
a chemical formed when haemoglobin bonds to oxygen.
personal standards to be achieved. Performers compare themselves against what they have already done or suggest what they are going to do. There is no comparison with other performers.
a skill is started when the performer decides to start it. The speed, rate or pace of the skill is controlled by the performer.
a learned action of behaviour, with the intention of bringing about pre-determined results, with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of time and energy.
a goal setting technique that can be used to increase motivation and reduce anxiety. Specific, Measurable, Accepted, Realistic and Time-bound.
the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction.
the phase of the heartbeat when the chambers of the heart contract and empty of blood. When blood is ejected from the heart.
the upper and lower boundaries of the aerobic training zone and the anaerobic training zone.
the narrowing of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to decrease blood flow. The arteries constrict during exercise so that less blood is delivered to inactive areas.
the widening of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to increase blood flow. The arteries dilate during exercise so that more blood is delivered to the active areas, increasing their oxygen supply.